Tuesday, November 20, 2012

Marzano’s Classroom Instruction That Works: A Formula for Effective Educator Evaluation -Foundation for Power Walk Through Facilitation

Marzano’s Classroom Instruction That Works:
A Formula for Effective Educator Evaluation -Foundation for Power Walk Through Facilitation

Patrick Crowthers
Fall 2012
Fundamentals of Curriculum Development
Dr. Jay Dugan
Rowan University
Educational Specialist Degree in School Psychology

The New Jersey Department of Education has determined Dr. Robert Marzano's Causal 

Teacher Evaluation Model to meet the requirements of a research-based teacher practice 

evaluation system and to be eligible for the state's $1.16 million teacher evaluation pilot grant. 

Learning Sciences International, partner of Dr. Marzano, is the model's  provider.  This model is 

slowly being integrated and developed into various school districts throughout the state. The 

Marzano Model has already been used as the evaluation criteria of administrators and teachers in 

other states like FLORIDA and DELAWARE for instance.  There are nine identified strategies 

that will help to accomplish student achievement and organization in the classroom  based on 

Marzano’s Model of Teacher Evaluation; therefore every teacher would find them helpful when 

planning lessons. The criteria that is observed in the evaluation includes: identifying similarities & 

differences, summarizing & note taking, reinforcing and providing recognition,  homework & 

practice, nonlinguistic representations, cooperative learning groups, creating objectives/goals & 

providing feedback, generating and testing hypothesis (Educational Guesses), and finally the use of 

cues, questions, and organizers to supplement and maximize the students’ learning experience.

The Purpose of the Marzano Model of Teacher Evaluation is intended to to help define best practices in 

instruction for educators and in order for students to become successful and achieve. Furthermore,

is meant to provide educational professions with empirically sound data of effective instructional 

practices in order to maximize student success and achievement in the classroom environment. 

Additionally, it was designed for student success and the teacher is seen as the active participant and 

 facilitator of the learning environment; leading to a student centered evaluation of the instructional 

environment on behalf of the evaluators.  The evaluation model was created so that educational 

administration and supervisors would be able to complete a series of observation & assessments

 during an educator’s instructional period to gain insight into the students’ learning as well as the

effectiveness of the teacher's instructional practices.  The planned and systematic walkthroughs with 

administration/evaluators doing observations is a means to having a productive and effective assessment 

of the teacher's professional duties, along with a conversation with the teacher about their educational 

instructional practices for student success on multiple occasions in order to provide sound instructional

practices and alleviate areas that are deficient.  Furthermore, the walkthroughs are intended to help 

administrators/evaluators as well as educators/evaluatees develop best practices for instruction in the 

following academic subjects in schools on behalf of the students. They include: Math, Science, 

Language Arts, Social Studies, World Languages,  & PE/Music/Art specials.  

   There are specific instructional issues related to conducting observations based on the Marzano Model 

of Teacher Evaluation for student achievement. They include: classroom environment strategies, 

primary instructional strategies, secondary instructional strategies, as well as connections and links to 

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning.   Along those lines, educators are evaluated using the model based on 

their professional duties and instructional practices including. The following are list of criteria that 

the Marzano Model takes into consideration in its evaluation of teacher effectiveness. Specifically,

does the educator have evidence of the following during their assigned assessment and

observation that includes: effective and appropriate communication with other school staff, parents, and 

students.  The teachers also are evaluated on their ability to provide sound reinforcement for students 

while providing recognition and praise. Educators are also assessed to be competent in their efforts to 

be able to successfully incorporating cooperative learning and effective positive peer relations in their 

lessons with students.  Using Marzano’s Model allows evaluation of the educator’s ability to 

incorporate the following into their lessons as well as creating a learning environment to achieve 

student success. The criteria for achieving successful instructional practice on behalf of educators 

for students includes the following for classroom teachers: communicates specific learning 

objectives and goals that you want the student to work toward, be accurate when teaching content; but 

not inflexible or open to student ideas, be able to successfully connect to prior experience or access 

students’ prior knowledge; schema, and finally be able to appropriately encourage and engage students 

in creating in establishing and implementing their goals for both the classroom as well as throughout the 

entire school setting.  

When providing effect feedback and evaluations to students based on their performance, 

proponents of the Marzano Model suggest that teachers use the following approaches when working 

with students: provide students with specific and elaborate feedback that is constructive and intended to 

focus on what the student did well(praise) and their effort vs. what they did wrong; also teachers can 

provide a framework of how the student can move on from here by establishing positive and attainable 

goals. Second, when assessing students and their work or effort, provide consistent and timely 

feedback; waiting to long will not provide the same effective reinforcement. Next, give students rubrics 

along with the assignments in order for them to be able to do well and have a complete understanding 

of what it is they are supposed to do in order to achieve high marks;  this way students can monitor their 

own understanding of what is needed to be successful on a project.  Finally, always allow students to 

engage in and develop reflective and analytical practices in terms of feedback and evaluation. Teachers 

can facilitate this for students in the following means:  individual editing or using a peer/buddy.  

   The Marzano Model, in its quest to provide the highest level of quality educators to teach  

students, addresses the need for educators to be able to do the following: show students that the effort is 

just as important in problem solving or completing their academic work as is the outcome or answer; 

the idea that teachers need to praise the effort and not the final answer at times.  It also calls for 

educators to be able to encourage students to develop a love of learning and find out what their 

strengths and weaknesses may be in the classroom; along with the  idea of developing classroom 

conversations with students to set goals and objectives of how to succeed and achieve their goals. The

 evaluation model by Marzano also considers if teachers are actively taking every opportunity to 

engage students in positive interactions and experiences during instructional periods in the classroom 

environment. Indicators to look for based on this model of teacher evaluation by Marzano can include

the following:  educators taking every opportunity they can to teach the students the relationship 

between effort and achievement in order to be successful and how it effects their attitude toward 

education as mentioned above. Next, encouraging and supporting students with explicit guidance of 

how to meet their educational goals and how they can attain those goals in the classroom setting and in 

the school. Finally, educators need to allow for opportunities for students to track their effort and 

achievement once they set their educational goals ex. charting their progress so that students can easily 

refer to what they are working for and keep their focus.

Based on the Marzano Model of Effective Educator Evaluation there are specific 

indicators associated with recognition and praise of students that administrators and evaluators 

will look for to promote student achievement and success in the classroom on behalf of the 

teacher. They include: teachers be able to provide opportunities for each student to develop, 

implement, and work towards a set of mastery goals that could reflect academic, social, or 

emotional growth depending on the particular student and situation. Second, educators taking the time 

to develop, implement, and b recognize student successes when a student meets and or 

exceeds expectations, performances, and behaviors. Teachers are encouraged to develop a

system to track and monitor progress along with a means for students to self-monitor their own 

behavior by creating positive behavior supports that may connect to the entire school or other 

teachers systems. This can be accomplished by using concrete and specific means to 

track their behavior ex. behavior plan - group or individual along with tangible and appropriate

reward.  Furthermore, teachers can help students to engage in cooperative to enhance their learning by: 

provide small attentive groups that promote learning in a student centered environment. They can also 

use and have the students become familiar with the PIE Acronym in order to promote cooperative 

learning in student achievement in the classroom environment. This stands for -

ositive Interdependence

I ndividual Accountability

E qual roles/work load

Under the Marzano Model of Teacher Evaluation, evaluators/administrators look 

to see that teachers design and implement cooperative learning groups for student success should 

also include:  a variety of data and criteria to thoughtfully plan and group students in cooperative 

groups,  institute best practices that shows that students can learn best when they are working 

with mixed ability groups, and establish cooperative partnerships that include high achieving and low 

achieving students.  This also includes groups including general education students along with ESL and 

special education to be included in the group; Marzano’s Model of Teacher Evaluation cites that all 

students can maximize their learning experience in mixed ability grouping.  Finally, evaluators 

and administrators using Marzano’s Model, will look to see that teachers are frequently and 

appropriately using cooperative learning, peer work, and mixed ability groups throughout all 

academics in the classroom to make it a classroom wide event that takes place daily.

Benefits of the Marzano Evaluation Model of evaluation can include how it is used to identify the 

direct cause-and-effect relationship between teaching practices and student achievement.  It also

supports and guides teachers and leaders to make informed decisions to yield the greatest benefits 

for their students.  The research and data are empirically sound; based on 40 years of collected 

research and five years of real-classroom experimental/control studies.  Along those lines, 

it has been tested for inter-rater reliability and offers intensive training for accuracy and 

fairness.  Finally, the last benefit of the model is that it makes steady, measurable increases in 

student achievement an achievable goal. Concerns associated with the Marazano Model of 

Teacher Evaluation includes how it addresses and focuses on teacher behaviors, rather than descriptions 

of professional practice to be evaluated.  Furthermore, any system of evaluation, such as the 

Marzano Model of teacher evaluation that penalizes teachers for failing to use a specific strategy 

is troubled because research and studies have been done to establish links between elements of 

the Marzano Model (that is, ones effecting particular teaching practices) and student learning 

outcomes. With that being said, it is not true that the model itself has been proven to cause or effect

student learning in a positive or negative context.


      • Haystead, M. W., & Marzano, R. J. (2010a) Final report: A second year evaluation study of Promethean ActivClassroom. Englewood, CO: Marzano Research Laboratory marzanoresearch.com.

      • Haystead, M. W., & Marzano, R. J. (2010b). Meta-analytic synthesis of studies conducted at Marzano Research Laboratory on instructional strategies. Englewood, CO: Marzano Research Laboratory (marzanoresearch.com). 
      • Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T., & Livingston, D. (2011). Effective supervision: Supporting the art and science of teaching. Alexandria VA: ASCD. 

PARCC Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers

Monica Moore-Cook
PARCC, Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, is a partnership of 23 states including the Virgin Islands, to work together to create a common set of assessments in English and Math. The PARCC K-12 assessment system will be aligned to the college- and career-ready, Common Core State Standards, and is being designed to challenge students, help identify when they are not meeting the standards, and provide targeted instruction, supports and interventions to help them succeed. The emphasis of this computer-based test will be on formative, or benchmark assessments to monitor students’ progress toward college/career readiness.  PARCC’s vision is to “build a pathway to college and career readiness for all students; create high-quality assessments that measure the full range of the Common  Core State Standards; support educators in the classroom, make better use of technology in assessments; and advance accountability at all levels.”
This initiative began with the launch and design phase in the 2010-2011 school.  Last school year, 2011-2012 began the development.  For the next two school years they will be conducting a pilot/field testing and related research and data collection.  Lastly, during the 2014-2015 school year the administration of the PARCC will be completely initiated.  The design of the assessment will consist of the following summative and non-summative assessments: diagnostic (early indicator of where the student is), mid-year (comprised of performance-based items and tasks), performance based assessment (administered near the end of the school year) and end of the year assessment (innovative, computer-based items).   
What does this assessment mean for students and educators?  Students who score proficient on the assessments will know they are on track for the next steps in their education. In high school, results will provide an early signal about whether students are ready for entry-level, non-remedial courses at higher education institutions in all 24 PARCC states.  Students who are identified as not being on track, or who do not meet the college readiness score, will receive targeted supports and interventions.  Higher education partners in PARCC have committed to help develop the high school assessments and set the college-ready cut score that will be used to place incoming freshman in credit-bearing college courses. 
Assessing students’ knowledge to use as a bases of  improving instruction so that students are ultimately ready for college and careers is a positive initiative.  Even still there are many negatives.  The following is a table of a few pros and cons. 

Technical Advantages: 
Educators, parents and students will be provided with data throughout the year to guide instruction, improve students learning and track progress through this computer-based test.
Reduce paperwork, shipping/receiving & storage

Technical Challenges:
Addressing the technology gaps for the implementation, administration and scoring of these next generation assessments.

Implementation Advantages:
This will be a common assessment across the US that will coincide with the common core standards. 
Promote rigor in all areas of Mathematics and English Language Arts/Literacy
Increase college and career readiness

Implementation Challenges:
Make sure districts are ready to transition to these new assessments by 2014-2015- budget
More Assessment = funding and time

Policy Advantages:
Help ensure the new common core standards reach every classroom through measures of growth

Policy Challenges:
States/Districts will need to review their policies and make adjustments.

Although there are some real concerns about this new assessment, this partnership of states has committed to working together to overcome the challenges. They have strategically planned a collaborative effort to develop a set of high-quality instructional tools to help the education community transition to the next generation assessment system as well as tools to support the new assessment system.